It's odd that the headphones jack on your TV is working with your headphones but not your speakers. Have you tried plugging the speakers into any other devices with a 3.5mm jack connection? If so, is it just the TV that the speakers are not working with, or are they not working at all?
If it is just the TV they are unable to play from, make sure the jack connection is secure and firmly plugged in. It's possible the jack for the speakers had not been fully plugged into the TV and this is why they were unable to play.
Let me know how you get on!
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